Reproductive autonomy is essential for women to achieve reproductive rights and freedom. However, the factors associated with reproductive autonomy in various contexts have not been explored. The aim of this analysis was to understand the socio-demographic, reproductive history and social context variables associated with two validated reproductive autonomy sub-scales among 516 young Ghanaian women age 15 to 24. We used multiple linear regression modelling to test associations between covariates of interest and the communication sub-scale and decision-making sub-scale. Covariates included age, educational attainment, ethnic group, employment, religion, religious attendance, relationship type, previous pregnancy, previous abortion, social support for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, and social stigma towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Results from final models demonstrated that factors associated with the communication scale included education (p = 0.008), ethnic group (p = 0.039), and social support for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (B = 0.12, p = 0.003). Factors associated with the decision-making scale included ethnic group (p = 0.002), religion (p = 0.003), religious attendance (p = 0.043), and previous pregnancy (p = 0.008). Communication reproductive autonomy and decision-making reproductive autonomy were associated with different factors, providing insight into potential intervention approaches and points. Social support for adolescent sexual and reproductive health was associated with increases in young women's abilities to communicate with their partners about sexual and reproductive health issues including sex, contraceptive use and fertility.