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Factors associated with HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

  • Shangani, Sylvia1, 2, 3
  • Naanyu, Violet3, 4
  • Mwangi, Ann3, 4
  • Vermandere, Heleen5
  • Mereish, Ethan1
  • Obala, Andrew6
  • Vanden Broeck, Davy5
  • Sidle, John3, 6, 7
  • Operario, Don1
  • 1 1 Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, School of Public Health, Brown University, Rhode Island, United States. , (United States)
  • 2 2 School of Public Health, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 3 3 Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 4 4 Department of Behavioral Science, College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 5 5 International Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Ghent, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 6 6 School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. , (Kenya)
  • 7 7 Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, United States. , (India)
Published Article
International Journal of STD & AIDS
SAGE Publications
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2017
DOI: 10.1177/0956462416638967
PMID: 26970651


HIV diagnosis is an important step in the HIV cascade of prevention and treatment. However, men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries have limited access to HIV care services. We examined factors associated with prior HIV testing among men who have sex with men in western Kenya. We recruited 95 men who have sex with men aged 18 years and older, and who reported at least one sexual contact with a man in the past 6 months; however, this analysis is restricted to 89 participants who completed questions on HIV testing. Logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with HIV testing in the past one year. Results indicate that 23 (26%) had not been tested in the past 12 months. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that condomless anal sex (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.18-9.17) and comfort with healthcare providers (odds ratio = 1.15, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.26) were associated with higher odds of HIV testing in the past 12 months. Experiencing social stigma was associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months (odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.94). In multivariable models, social stigma remained significantly associated with lower odds of HIV testing in the last 12 months odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99) after inclusion of sexual risk and individual level variables. Development of men who have sex with men-sensitive HIV-testing services, addressing stigma, and training healthcare workers to provide culturally sensitive services may assist in effectively engaging men who have sex with men in the HIV treatment cascade.

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