The bleeding disorder of hemophilia A currently treated by replacement therapy of the missing coagulation factor, factor VIII, is frequently complicated by the development of neutralizing antibodies. The therapeutic potential of attenuated forms of the lipid-associated glycoprotein tissue factor, a known initiator of coagulation, was investigated as a factor VIII-by-passing activity. The protein moiety of tissue factor (Apo-TF) was partially purified and exhibited minimal procoagulant activity before relipidation in vitro. In pilot studies, Apo-TF injection into rabbits previously anticoagulated with an antibody to factor VIII was found to have a procoagulant effect. The efficacy of the material was further demonstrated when injection of Apo-TF in hemophilic dogs resulted in a normalization of the cuticle bleeding time. Little or no change in the blood parameters associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation was observed at lower doses, although mild to moderate effects were seen at higher doses. These data suggest a novel role for Apo-TF preparations as a potential therapeutic agent for hemophiliacs with antibodies to factor VIII once the potential thrombogenicity of such materials is evaluated.