Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign neoplasm in men. Our understanding of this condition has improved greatly over the years and recent advances have changed our approach to management. At the end of the 19th century, prostatic enlargement was treated effectively by bilateral orchidectomy. Unsurprisingly, this treatment option never gained widespread popularity. Less than 10 years ago, surgery and watchful waiting were the only considered treatment options for BPH. We now have a number of medical therapies and minimally invasive treatment options available that can effectively manage lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction. However, with increased choice comes the increased need for clarity in selection and application of these various treatment options. In the current environment of evidence-based clinical practice, awareness and interpretation of data from the numerous studies is paramount. The lessons learned from these trials should be reflected clearly in our practice, with clinical management based on fact, not fiction. In this review, we critically assess the available data and understanding of the management of BPH.