In this work, we have synthesized two polymer-grafted cation exchangers: one via the grafting-from approach, in which sulfopropyl methacrylate (SPM) is grafted through atom transfer radical polymerization onto Sepharose FF (the thus resulting exchanger is referred as Sep-g-SPM), and another via the grafting-to approach, in which the polymer of SPM is directly coupled onto Sepharose FF (the thus resulting exchanger is called as Sep-pSPM). Protein adsorption on these two cation exchangers have been also investigated. At the same ligand density, Sep-g-SPM has a larger accessible pore radius and a smaller depth of polymer layer than SeppSPM, due to the controllable introduction of polymer chains with the regular distribution of the ligand. Therefore, high-capacity adsorption of lysozyme and -globulin could be achieved simultaneously in Sep-g-SPM with an ionic capacity (IC) of 308 mmol$L-1. However, Sep-pSPM has an irregular chain distribution and different architecture of polymer layer, which lead to more serious repulsive interaction to proteins, and thus Sep-pSPM has a lower adsorption capacity for -globulin than Sep-g-SPM with the similar IC. Moreover, the results from protein uptake experiments indicate that the facilitated transport of adsorbed -globulin occurs only in Sep-pSPM and depends on the architecture of polymer layers. Our research provides a clear clue for the development of high-performance protein chromatography.