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Vortex and air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction as a sample preparation method for high-performed liquid chromatography determinations

DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.06.066
  • Vortex And Air Assisted Liquid–Liquid Microextraction
  • <Beta>-Naphthol
  • Naphthalene
  • Anthracene
  • High-Performance Liquid Chromatography


Abstract A novel, simple and sensitive method based on vortex and air assisted liquid–liquid microextraction (VAALLME) technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for quantitative analysis of β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene as model analytes. Unlike the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME), dispersive solvent and centrifuging step were eliminated in proposed technique. In this technique, extraction solvent was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution by using vortex. Phase separation was achieved via motion of air bubbles from the bottom to top of the extraction tube, which promoted the analytes transfer into the supernatant organic phase. Influential parameters on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of extraction solvent, salt type and its concentration, vortex and aeration times, and sample pH were evaluated and optimized. The calibration curves showed good linearity (r2>0.9947) and precision (RSD<5.0%) in the working concentration ranges. The limit of detection (LOD) for β-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene were 10, 5.0 and 0.5ngmL−1, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 97.0–102.0% with RSD values ranging from 2.2 to 5.2%.

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