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Appraisal of measurement methods, chemical composition and sources of fine atmospheric particles over six different areas of Northern Belgium

Authors
Journal
Environmental Pollution
0269-7491
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
158
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.012
Keywords
  • Respirable Particles
  • Pm10
  • Heavy Metals
  • Mineral Content
  • Edxrf Analysis
  • Soot
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Non-Exhaust Emission
Disciplines
  • Agricultural Science
  • Earth Science

Abstract

Abstract Daily and seasonal variation in the total elemental, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content and mass of PM 2.5 were studied at industrial, urban, suburban and agricultural/rural areas. Continuous (optical Dustscan, standard tapered element oscillating micro-balance (TEOM), TEOM with filter dynamics measurement system), semi-continuous (Partisol filter-sampling) and non-continuous (Dekati-impactor sampling and gravimetry) methods of PM 2.5 mass monitoring were critically evaluated. The average elemental fraction accounted for 2–6% of the PM 2.5 mass measured by gravimetry. Metals, like K, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were strongly inter-correlated, also frequently with non-metallic elements (P, S, Cl and/or Br) and EC/OC. A high OC/EC ratio (2–9) was generally observed. The total carbon content of PM 2.5 ranged between 3 and 77% (averages: 12–32%), peaking near industrial/heavy trafficked sites. Principal component analysis identified heavy oil burning, ferrous/non-ferrous industry and vehicular emissions as the main sources of metal pollution.

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