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STUDIES OF BACTERIAL TRANSFUSION REACTIONS FROM REFRIGERATED BLOOD: THE PROPERTIES OF COLD-GROWING BACTERIA 1

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Abstract

FS12 Essential Thrombocythemia Facts I page 1 Revised June 2012 Introduction Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is one of several “myeloproliferative neoplasms” (MPNs), a group of closely related blood cancers that share several features, notably the “clonal” overproduction of one or more blood cell lines. All clonal disorders begin with one or more changes (mutations) to the DNA in a single cell; the altered cells in the marrow and the blood are the offspring of that one mutant cell. Other MPNs include polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis. The effects of ET result from uncontrolled blood cell production, notably of platelets. Because the disease arises from a change to an early blood-forming cell that has the capacity to form red cells, white cells and platelets, any combination of these three cell lines may be affected – and usually each cell line is affected to some degree. In ET, there is mainly an overproduction of platelet-forming cells, called “megakaryocytes,” in the marrow. This results in the release of too many platelets into the blood. A platelet is a small blood cell. Its function is to start the process of forming a plug (clot) in response to blood vessel injury in order to prevent or minimize bleeding. When platelets are present in very high numbers they may not function normally and may cause a blockage in blood vessels, known as a “thrombus.” Less often, a high number of platelets can also cause bleeding problems. Another word for platelet is “thrombocyte.” The term “thrombocythemia” means an excess of platelets in the blood. The term “essential” indicates that the increase in platelets is an innate problem of the blood cell production in the bone marrow. “Secondary thrombocytosis” is the term for a condition that results in very high platelet counts in the blood in reaction to another problem in the patient’s body, such as inflammatory disease, removal of the spleen, or iron deficiency in adults. A patient with secondary, or rea

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