Abstract Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds have been revealed to be potent antioxidants as part of the Mediterranean diet. To test the hypothesis that these phenolics can modulate the serum and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol concentrations in humans, a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial was designed. Thirty-three participants received 25 mL/d of refined olive oil (devoid of phenolic content [PC]), common olive oil (PC = 370 mmol/kg), and virgin olive oil (PC = 825 mmol/kg) in a Latin square design. The 3 olive oils were administered over 3 periods of 3 weeks, each one preceded by 2-week washout periods. All analyses were carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. The interventions did not modify the concentrations of serum and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triacylglycerol; but they exerted changes in the cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid content of VLDL. The virgin olive oil consumption led to increased oleic and palmitic acids, as well as decreased linoleic acid, in VLDL. The main outcome was the significant dose-dependent linear trend between the PC in the olive oils and the palmitic (16:0) and linoleic (18:2 n-6) acid and their corresponding triacylglycerol molecular species in VLDL.