Molecular characterization of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of different origins can generate information useful for developing molecular methods that are widely applicable for rapid drug resistance detection. Using DNA sequencing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), we investigated genetic mutations associated with isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance among 29 drug-resistant clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis collected from Malatya, Turkey, including 19 multi-drug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Point mutations were detected at codons 531, 516, 526, and 513 of the RNA polymerase β- subunit gene (rpoB) in 10 (47.6%), five (23.8%), three (14.3%), and three (14.3%) of the 21 RIF-resistant isolates, respectively. Of the five isolates having mutations in codon 516, three also had mutations at codon 527; one had a concurrent mutation at codon 572. Mutations at codon 315 of the catalase-peroxidase-encoding gene (katG) were found in 17 (63.0%) of the 27 INH-resistant isolates. Interestingly, the katG codon 315 mutation was observed at a much higher frequency in MDR isolates than in INH-mono-resistant isolates (∼79% vs. 25%). This study provided the first molecular characterization of INH and RIF resistance of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates from Eastern Turkey, and extended our knowledge of molecular basis of M. tuberculosis drug resistance.