Jacques Charmes — African women, economic activities and labour : From invisibility to recognition Measuring women's work remains an enduring problem though recent efforts have begun to yield fruit. Rates of women's employment are still far from being translated into gdp terms, which would otherwise be the logical outcome. Since the Beijing Conference in 1995, we see the emergence of the notion of labour, broadly defined, which underscores the gender gap, in Africa and elsewhere. An increasing number of surveys reveal the actual contribution of African women to national production and to the welfare of households. The article outlines the current state of affairs and indicates the research trends in this field.