Four model dipeptides containing a Z-dehydrophenylalanine residue (ΔZPhe) at the C-terminal, Boc-X-ΔZ Phe-NHMe (X = Ala (1), Gly (2), Pro (3), and Val (4)), have been synthesised and their solution conformations investigated by 270 MHz 1H n.m.r. and i.r. spectroscopy. N.m.r. studies on these peptides clearly show the presence of intramolecularly hydrogen bonded structures in CHCl3 solutions while such structures appear to be absent in the corresponding saturated peptides. This conclusion is also supported by i.r. studies. Studies of the nuclear Overhauser effect provided evidence for the occurrence of a significant population of β-turn structures in solvents like CDCl3 and (CD3)2SO. The observed NOES are consistent with a major contribution from Type II β-turn structure in CDCl3, while in (CD3)2SO solutions there is evidence of a partially extended structure also.