Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in dental and occlusal conditions, and prevalence of bone change in the condyle, between a group of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and a group of dental patients without such complaints. Study design A group of 504 patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD patients) and a group of 970 patients without such complaints (dental patients), all 25 years of age or older, were compared using the criteria of age, sex, dental and occlusal condition, and prevalence of bone change in the condyle based on panoramic radiographs and imaging request forms. Results In both groups, the rate of complete dental arch was high for both jaws. According to Eichner’s index, the rate for group A among the dental patients was 59.6%, whereas it was 84.7% in the TMD patients ( P < .01). The prevalence of bone change in the condyle was 17.7% for the TMD patients and 11.6% for the dental patients ( P < .01). Eichner’s group C was somewhat high for the dental patients, and group A was high for the TMD patients. However, there were no significant differences in the occlusal conditions based on the prevalence of bone change. Deformity was the most common abnormality of bone change for both the dental and the TMD patients. In the TMD patients, the rate of osteophytes was the second most common abnormal finding. Osteophytes were the highest among the average age for all abnormal bone changes in the condyle. With the TMD patients, all the changes were more commonly found in Eichner’s group A. Conclusions It was demonstrated that the symptoms of TMD correlated with age, sex, and dental and occlusal conditions. However, the prevalence of bone change in the condyle correlated poorly with age, sex, and dental and occlusal condition with and without TMD.