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Brain Oscillations and Predictive Processing

Frontiers in Psychology
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00416
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Brain oscillations and predictive processing also been established as a primary constitu- ent of MMN (Fuentemilla et al., 2008; Hsiao et al., 2009; Ko et al., 2012) and FRN (Cohen et al., 2007, 2011; Marco-Pallares et al., 2008; Christie and Tata, 2009). Thus, the oscil- latory theta activity may be a consistent neurophysiologic marker of the utilization of the mismatch (error) information by the executive-control systems in the cortex. In contrast, there is evidence that increased fast-frequency (beta/gamma – 15–80 Hz) oscillations may signal match detection. Cohen et al. (2007) and Marco- Pallares et al. (2008) demonstrated that positive feedback (prediction confirma- tion) was associated with increased beta/ gamma activity, in contrast to negative feedback characterized by enhanced theta oscillations. Schadow et al. (2009) showed that early phase-locked gamma-band responses (20–80 Hz) were significantly increased for predictable regular auditory stimuli as compared to deviant stimuli, as found for fast-frequency responses in the brainstem (Slabu et al., 2012). This is in line with a model according to which matching between incoming stimulus and a memory template results in enhanced gamma-band activity (Herrmann et al., 2004). Thus, time-frequency decomposition of brain responses may be critical for identifying error signals in functional systems operat- ing in parallel at different processing levels. In the context of the generative predic- tive model, a major focus of exploration needs to be placed on error processing in different brain states, in which top-down executive-control mechanisms are reduced, totally inhibited, or qualitatively altered. Such states are best represented by different stages of sleep, anesthesia, coma, and brain diseases. For example, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that subcortical regions and extrastriate visual cortices are more active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with wake and non-REM A co

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