Abstract Background Liver resection (LR) in liver transplant (OLT) recipients, an extremely rare situation, who performed on 8 recipients. Methods This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data concerned 8 (0.66%) 1198 LR cases among OLT performed from 1997 to 2011. We analyzed demographic data, surgical indications, and postoperative courses. Results The indications were resectable recurrent hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC, n = 3), persistent fistula from a posterior sectorial duct (n = 1), recurrent cholangitis due to anastomotic stricture on the posterior sectorial duct (n = l), hydatid cyst (n = l), left arterial hepatic thrombosis with secondary ischemic cholangitis (n = 1), and a large symptomatic biliary cyst (n = 1). The mean interval time to liver resection was 23.7 months (range, 5–47). LR included right hepatectomy (n = 1), right posterior hepatectomy (n = 1), left lobectomy (n = 4), pericystectomy (n = 1), or biliary fenestration (n = 1). Which there was no postoperative mortality, the global morbidity rate was 62% (5/8). The mean follow-up after LR was 92 months (range, 11–156). No patients required retransplantation. None of the 3 patients who underwent LR for HCC showed a recurrence. Conclusions LR in OLT recipients is safe, but associated with a high morbidity rate. This procedure can avoid retransplantation in highly selected patients, presenting a possible option particularly for transplanted patients with a resectable, recurrent HCC.