Publisher Summary This chapter discusses insect conservation. Insect conservation includes two main contexts. Insects may be conservation “targets,” whereby particular species become the focus of concern because of their perceived decline in abundance or distribution or insects may be conservation “tools,” in which they are incorporated into broader aspects of conservation concern through their sensitivity to environmental changes and used as “signals” to monitor or herald changes to natural environments. Efforts in insect conservation are an important avenue to increasing the understanding of human impact on natural ecosystems and of the subtle steps needed to safeguard them in the face of accelerating losses. However, the complexity of the issues involved demands a clear perspective and allocation of priorities, so that limited funding and expertise can be deployed for the greatest benefit. Developing such perspective involves increasing fundamental documentation of patterns of insect species richness on a variety of geographical scales; selecting the most deserving taxa for conservation targets, based on urgency of need to prevent extinction; defining and alleviating threats to taxa and to their host environments; public and administrative education to communicate the importance of insects in the natural world, and hence the need for their conservation; and evaluating the contributions of insects in broader conservation activities.