Abstract The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of immature ovarioles of the 1st-instar nymphs of Machilis helleri (Thysanura : Machilidae) are described. The nymphs have 7 pairs of segmentally arranged panoistic ovariole primordia in which the germarium and previtellarium can be distinguished. The germarium contains oogonia, young oocytes, and prefollicular cells. The previtellarium is filled with previtellogenic oocytes, prefollicular cells, and a pyramid-like group of somatic cells representing the primordium of the pedicel and oviduct. The ultrastructure of individual types of cells correlates to a great extent with the respective cells of ovarioles of adult machilids. Oogonia undergo mitosis in the germarium and transform into young oocytes. These grow and develop into previtellogenic oocytes characterized by changes in the nucleolus and by emission of ribonucleoproteinaceous bodies from the nucleus into cytoplasm. Segmental arrangement of ovarioles in Archaeognatha is discussed in view of contemporary hypotheses on the anagenesis of the reproductive system of Articulata.