DRYING-HOUSES FOR DRYING OF FRUIT IN POSOČJE REGION (Summary)

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DRYING-HOUSES FOR DRYING OF FRUIT IN POSOČJE REGION (Summary)

Authors
Publisher
Croatian Ethnological Society and Department of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb; [email protected]
Keywords
  • Slovenia
  • Slovenija
  • Fruit-Growing
  • PosočJe
  • Sadjarstvo

Abstract

From the historical point of view fruit has always had an important role in nutrition. Up to the mid 20th century fruit-growing was a complementary activity to cultivation of crops and to stock-farming. The tradition and the heritage of fruit-growing are varied and rich, either those relative to the profession of the fruit-grower and to the activities of fruit-growing or to those relative to the buildings – drying-houses, which are the smallest farm-buildings in Slovenia. From 19th century to the mid 20th century the drying-house or "pajštva" was an indispensable part of mountain self-sufficient farms. Drying-houses lost their basic function between 1950 and 1960 when farmers stopped using them for drying fruit. In the introduction of my paper I present the sources and the literature that treat the subject of fruit-growing and drying-houses. Among the most important authors emerge P. Santonino, J. V. Valvazor, M. Pohlin, S. Rutar, A. Muznik and the 19th century Austro-Hungarian cadastre. For the topography resp. for the recording of drying-houses I chose the region of Posočje. The land of Posočje is rather suitable for fruit-growing and the drying of fruit – – pears, prunes and apples – in drying-houses or ovens for baking bread was extensively practised till the mid 20th century. A peculiar method of fruit-drying was in use in the area of Goriška Brda. There, fruit was dried and smoked with brimstone in "keson" or air-dried. Air-drying was in use also in the Vipava valley, for ex. apricots in the village of Budanje. I carried out the registration and the inventory of drying-houses between 1999 and 2002. After processing the data I classified the drying-houses and entered them in a table according to the set criteria. In order to make the survey more complete I entered the ruined and the partly ruined drying-houses as well. The table contains the following data: - EŠD (code number of the cultural heritage item if considered cultural heritage or a monument) - name of the drying-house - degree of preservation - typology - TTN (topographic plan) The paper is divided in several chapters. Besides the typology (drying with smoke, without smoke, electrically heated) I also described some old sorts of fruit trees, tools for gathering, picking, drying and storing of fruit and added some recipes for dishes with dried fruit. In the conclusion I describe the only drying-house still in use, namely the one belonging to the farm called "Pri Francu" in Kneške Ravne. The farm lies in an amphitheatre formed by the mountains Žabiški Kum, Vogel and Rodica and the slopes of Masovnik. The farm is situated higher than any other and its owners are proud and faithful to the traditional way of life. Their farm is a symbol of the past, perseverance, tradition and knowledge. The farm-buildings such as the "Kozolec toplar" (double roofed ridge top hay rack), the saw "venecijanka" (vertical frame one band blade saw), the wooden and the stone/brick barns, the basement with a smithy, the joiner's workshop and the drying-house are venerable buildings and conceal extraordinary technical achievements. The farm is surrounded by meadows, pasture-grounds and woods. At the border of the farm-grounds grow, scattered, old sorts of fruit trees of venerable age for the fruit-growing has been a tradition of the farm for centuries.

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