Abstract After an outbreak of sternal surgical-site infections (SSSI) with Aspergillus flavus following cardiac surgery, a mycological survey of air and surfaces (41 and 149 samples, respectively) was performed throughout the surgical ward (SW) and in other areas of the hospital. Results showed massive contamination by A. flavus: more than 100 cfu per contact plate were frequently observed in some areas of the SW. The distribution of the A. flavus spores in the building, and especially in the SW, enabled the location of a possible source within the non-medical part of the SW, but the true source could not be identified. Four other surveys were made to follow up the decontamination process; the contamination level did not fall rapidly, needing repetitive cleaning operations. Strains from patients and from the hospital environment selected all over the SW were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), using two different primers (ERIC-1, BG-2). All these strains showed the same genotype, proving the clonal single-source of the environmental contamination and the intra-operative acquisition of A. flavus in the SSSI outbreak.