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The campi flegrei (Italy) geothermal system: A fluid inclusion study of the mofete and San Vito fields

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/0377-0273(89)90076-0
  • Earth Science
  • Geography


Abstract A fluid inclusion study of core from the Mofete 1, Mofete 2, Mofete 5, San Vito 1, and San Vito 3 geothermal wells (Campi Flegrei, Campania, Italy) indicates that the hydrothermal minerals were precipitated from aqueous fluids ( ±CO 2 ) that were moderately saline (3–4 wt.% NaCl equiv.) to hypersaline (> 26 wt.% NaCl equiv.) and at least in part, boiling. Three types of primary fluid inclusions were found in authigenic K-feldspar, quartz, calcite, and epidote: (A) two-phase [ liquid (L) + vapor (V) ], liquid-rich inclusions with a range of salinity; (B) two-phase ( L + V ), vaporrich inclusions with low salinity; and (C) three-phase [ L + V + crystals (NaCL) ], liquid-rich inclusions with hypersalinity. Results of microthermometric and crushing studies are reported for twenty drill core samples taken from the lower portions of the five vertical wells. Data presented for selected core samples reveal a general decrease in porosity and increase in bulk density with increasing depth and temperature. Hydrothermal minerals commonly fill fractures and pore-spaces and define a zonation pattern, similar in all five wells studied, in response to increasing depth (pressure) and temperature. A greenschist facies assemblage, defined by albite + actinolite , gives way to an amphibolite facies, defined by plagioclase (andesine) + hornblende , in the San Vito 1 well at about 380°C. The fluid inclusion salinity values mimic the saline and hypersaline fluids found by drilling. Fluid inclusion V/L homogenization temperatures increase with depth and generally correspond to the extrapolated down-hole temperatures. However, fluid inclusion data for Mofete 5 and mineral assemblage data for San Vito 3, indicate fossil, higher-temperature regimes. A limited 87Sr/ 86Sr study of leachate (carbonate) and the leached cores shows that for most samples (except San Vito 3) the carbonate deposition has been from slightly 87Sr-enriched fluids and that Sr isotopic exchange has been incomplete. However, San Vito 3 cores show an approach to fluid/rock Sr equilibrium with a fluid similar to modern ocean water in 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio. The Campi Flegrei volcanic system has evolved undersaturated products, mostly trachyte, and defines a large ( ≈ 12 km ) caldera. The hydrothermal system developed in this location can be used as an analog for fossil systems in similar trachytic environments. The potential for ore mineralization is expressed by the recognition, from fluid inclusion and drilling data, of ore-forming environments such as boiling and brine stratification.

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