Vehicular Exhausts: Identification of further Carcinogens of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Class

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Vehicular Exhausts: Identification of further Carcinogens of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Class

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126 VEHICULAR EXHAUSTS: IDENTIFICATION OF FURTHER CARCINOGENS OF THE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLASS M. J. LYONS From the Cancer Research Department, Royal Beatson Memorial Hospital, Glasgow Received for publication January 7, 1959. THE recent epidemiological studies of Stocks (1957) in Great Britain and Hammond and Horn (1958) in the United States, while indicating a dominant role for cigarette smoking in most of today's lung cancer, have, in harmony with many previous surveys, shown the existence of an aetiologically significant urban factor. Haenszel and Shimkin (1956) in a statistical appraisal of surveys carried out in the United States, had already noted "the urban-rural discrepancy, in our opinion, represents a real finding and is a manifestation of multiple environ- mental factors in lung cancer ". In a breakdown of the urban factor, Mills and Porter (1957) brought forward results which indicated the likelihood of a contributing role for motor exhaust fumes. These authors stated that driving mileages above 12,000 miles per year were significantly related to lung cancer incidence among urban men, except for those in the heavy smoking category. This result would seem to find support in the observations of Hueper (1957), that the lung cancer rate in Austria was about twice as high in communities located on main traffic arteries than in those situated remote from main highways, and Kretz (1953) who stated that, in Vienna, among the three most frequent sites of cancer, the lung takes first place for the following occupations: Traffic (9.7 per cent), Iron and Metal industry (8.7 per cent), Building (5.1 per cent), Hotel and Licensed Bar-keeping (3.6 per cent) and several branches of industry (17.2 per cent). It is well known that during recent decades the rise in lung cancer frequency is paralleled by a similar rise in consumption of motor fuel. Benzene extracts of vehicular exhausts have been shown by Kotin, Falk and Thomas (1954, 1955) to produce skin cancers in mice. As a me

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