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Groups Excluded from ‘Representative’ Household Surveys: An Analysis Based on Remittances Sent and Received in Vietnam

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  • D63 - Equity
  • Justice
  • Inequality
  • And Other Normative Criteria And Measurement
  • C42 - Survey Methods
  • D1 - Household Behavior And Family Economics
  • F24 - Remittances


The Vietnam Living Standard Surveys (VLSS) are supposed to be representative of the entire population in Vietnam. However, we uncover an anomaly that the amount of remittances received from domestic sources is significantly larger than the amount of remittances sent to domestic sources, implying that the survey is at least not representative of remittance senders. By further exploring a unique characteristic of the survey questions about remittances, we determine that, in particular, female and urban-dwelling remittance senders are underrepresented in the survey.

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