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Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma of the tongue in an infant: a case report with emphasis on differential diagnosis of childhood spindle cell lesions

Authors
Journal
Pathology - Research and Practice
0344-0338
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
200
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.prp.2004.04.001
Keywords
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Rhabdomyofibrosarcoma
  • Spindle Cell Lesions
  • Tongue
  • Childhood Tumors
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Medicine

Abstract

Abstract Malignant tumors are extremely uncommon in infants, specifically in the head and neck region. We present a three-day-old infant with a large, polypoid, soft tissue mass arising from the floor of the mouth. Histologically, this neoplasm consisted of hypercellular and myxoid areas. A mixture of poorly oriented, small, undifferentiated, hyperchromatic, and round to elongate spindle cells was seen. A high degree of striated muscle differentiation was present, along with areas marked by a herringbone pattern, as well as hemangiopericytic vessels and rare mitosis. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed strong nuclear staining for myogenin and diffuse cytoplasmic staining for desmin and muscle-specific actin (HHF-35). The tumor did not stain for S-100. Based on histologic results and immunostains, this lesion was diagnosed as spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. This type of lesion involving the tongue is rarely seen in females, neither in association with a herringbone pattern nor with hemangiopericytic vessels. Furthermore, rare benign and malignant spindle lesions, such as cellular fibromatosis, fetal rhabdomyoma, infantile hemangiopericytoma, infantile rhabdomyofibrosarcoma, and infantile fibrosarcoma, should be in the differential diagnosis and excluded.

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