Abstract The 5-methylcytosines (m 5C) play critical roles in epigenetic control, often being recognized by proteins containing an MBD. In this study, we isolated six wheat cDNAs with open reading frame encoding putative methyl-binding domain proteins, which were designated as TaMBD1– TaMBD6, respectively. BLASTX searches and phylogenetic analysis suggested that the six TaMBD genes belonged to four (I, II, III and VIII) of the eight subclasses of MBD family. Genomic analysis showed that a 1386 bp intron was included in TaMBD1 and a 12-bp intron was found in TaMBD4. The expression profiles of the six TaMBDs were studied via Q-RT-PCR and the results indicated that the TaMBDs were differentially expressed in detected wheat tissues. It was interesting to note that 3 TaMBDs were highly expressed in dry seeds and endosperms. Moreover, the differential expression patterns of TaMBDs were observed in leaves and roots under water-stress. We concluded that multiple wheat MBD genes were present and they might play important roles in wheat growth and development, as well as in the water-stress response.