We have evaluated by a stroboscopic technique the in vitro effect of salmon calcitonin and human calcitionin on the motility of human migrated spermatozoa. We report here that human calcitonin is uneffective while salmon calcitonin is a potent inhibitor of the sperm motility. This salmon calcitonin action is abolished by the preincubation of the peptide with an anti-salmon calcitonin antiserum, demonstrating the specificity of the effect. In addition, we provide evidence that the release of intracellular calcium represents a necessary step for the action of the peptide. In fact, the salmon calcitonin effect is prevented in a dose-dependent way by dantrolene sodium which inhibits the release of calcium from intracellular stores while the calcium channel blocker verapamil is unefficacious. These results suggest a potential role for calcitonin in regulating human sperm motility.