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navigated with safety, and many of which require immediate work in order that steamers may ascend to Lewiston, Idaho, during the low-water season. A careful reconnaissance of all these rapids has been made by myself, and surveys have been made of some of them under my direction during the past fiscal year, and I am now able to give a general description of them, and to present a project for the improvement of these rivers from Celilo, Oreg., to Lewiston, Idaho. THE COLUMBIA RIVER. Starting from Celilo, the terminus of the railroad around the Dalles of the Columbia, the first difficulty is encountered at FIVE-MILE RAPID, about that distance above. This place requires skillful navigation, but is not considered by pilots very dangerous. To improve it would require a large outlay owing to the length and massive character of the rock. No work is proposed here at present. LOWER JOHN DAY'S RAPID is 10 miles further up. At this locality two rocks in the channel, estimated to contain about 100 cubic yards, require removal. One and one-half miles above is MIDDLE JOHN DAY'S RAPID. A rock which formerly greatly obstructed the channel here was removed in 1874, and no further work is required at present. UPPER JOHN DAY'S RAPID is about a mile above. There are two channels here, one on the north and one on the south side. The improvement of this locality is of first-class importance, and the removal of about 400 cubic yards of rock from the channel is necessary to render it navigable without danger. INDIAN RAPID, three miles above, does not require attention at present. At some future day it may be deemed necessary to remove some rock lying at the head of the rapids. SQUALLY HOOK RAPID is next in order, and 3 miles above. The lower portion of this rapid has been much improved during the past season. At a low stage of the river loaded boats descending will be obliged to drift around the bend which the channel makes, but this can be done with safety and but little delay, and no trouble will be had by boats ascending. Any further improvement will require the removal of a large quantity of rock, and is not recommended at present. Four miles above is ROCK CREEK RAPID, a place where there are three channels. The main one, which should be used for running down stream, is obstructed by a single rock in mid-

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