Noboru Saito1,2, Akiyoshi Seshimo1 and Shingo Kameoka1 1Departments of Surgery II and 2General Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Abstract Purpose: Improve risk management of patients undergoing investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in regard to underlying diseases and choice of premedication. According to a nationwide survey in Japan, 74% of the deaths associated with premedication were patients aged 60 years or over. Methods: Subjects were 418 patients undergoing investigations of the GI tract (367 endoscopy, 51 barium contrast radiography) between October 2001 and January 2004. Age distribution peaked in the 65-69 years group, and 40% of subjects were aged 65 years and over. Using a questionnaire, each subject was interviewed prior to the investigation to determine contraindications for anticholinergic agents or glucagon preparations. To confirm the risk associated with antispasmodic agents in elderly subjects, the group was subdivided into those aged under 65 years and those aged 65 and over, and com- pared. Results: Anticholinergic agents were contraindicated in more than 50% of subjects aged 65 years and over, and glucagon was contraindicated in 11% of subjects aged 65 years and over. The proportion of elderly subjects in whom antispasmodic agents, including anticholinergics and glucagon, were contraindicated was significantly greater than for subjects aged under 65 years. Conclusions: Using a written questionnaire at the time of obtaining informed consent facilitates the identification of under- lying diseases and selection of appropriate premedication.