Therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has showed to be promising due to its immunomodulatory function. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers immune response and release of inflammatory mediators, mainly cytokines, by glial cells creating a hostile microenvironment for endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs). We investigated the effects of factors secreted by MSCs on NSC in vitro and analyzed cytokines expression in vitro in a TBI model. Our in vitro results show that MSC-secreted factors increase NSC proliferation and induce higher expression of GFAP, indicating a tendency toward differentiation into astrocytes. In vivo experiments showed that MSC injection at an acute model of brain injury diminishes a broad profile of cytokines in the tissue, suggesting that MSC-secreted factors may modulate the inflammation at the injury site, which may be of interest to the development of a favorable microenvironment for endogenous NSC and consequently to repair the injured tissue.