The p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway plays an important role in inflammatory and stress responses. MAPKK6 (MKK6), a dual specificity protein kinase, is a p38 activator. Activation of the MKK6-p38 pathway is kept in check by multiple layers of regulations, including autoinhibition, dimerization, scaffold proteins, and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitination. However, the mechanisms underlying deactivation of MKK6-p38, which is crucial for maintaining the magnitude and duration of signal transduction, are not well understood. Lys-48-linked ubiquitination, which marks substrates for proteasomal degradation, is an important negative posttranslational regulatory machinery for signal pathway transduction. Here we report that the accumulation of F-box only protein 31 (FBXO31), a component of Skp1 · Cul1 · F-box protein E3 ligase, negatively regulated p38 activation in cancer cells upon genotoxic stresses. Our results show that FBXO31 binds to MKK6 and mediates its Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation, thereby functioning as a negative regulator of MKK6-p38 signaling and protecting cells from stress-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, our findings uncover a new mechanism of deactivation of MKK6-p38 and substantiate a novel regulatory role of FBXO31 in stress response.