Hydrological regimes are seasonally variable in river-floodplain ecosystems. Thus, since in these environments the local and regional factors change at different temporal scales, factors structuring metacommunities might also differ over time. However, temporal dynamics of metacommunities have rarely been assessed. Here, we investigated the influence of environmental and spatial factors over time on the metacommunity structuring of periphytic ostracods in the river-floodplain system of the Upper Paraná River (Brazil). The spatial factors turned out to be more important than environmental factors, and differences in the percentage of explanation of the factors structuring ostracod metacommunities over time were significant, mainly during extreme drought period. Our results showed that the high spatial influence might be related to the low connectivity amongst environments during such extreme drought period, which can increase dispersal limitation, and consequently can increase the turnover of ostracod species throughout the region, leading to a higher beta-diversity of ostracod metacommunities.