Studies examining the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in various cancers have produced controversial results. To address this controversy, we examined the prognostic role of STAT5a in cancer patients across multiple cancers. Transcription levels of STAT5a between tumors and normal tissues, obtained from public databases, were analyzed for statistical differences using Cox regression analysis with the outcome as overall survival and covariate of interest as high STAT5a expression. Meta-analysis was then conducted to summarize the hazard ratio estimate from the Cox regression analyses. We found that STAT5a was significantly under-expressed in breast, lung, and ovarian cancers, while STAT5a was significantly overexpressed in lymphoid neoplasm diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, glioblastoma, and glioma. High STAT5a expression was significantly associated with favorable survival in bladder cancer (lnHR = -0.8689 [-1.4087, -0.3292], P-value = 0.0016), breast cancer (lnHR = -0.7805 [-1.1394, -0.4215], P-value < 0.0001) and lung cancer (lnHR = -0.3255 [-0.6427, -0.0083], P-value = 0.0443). After adjusting for clinicopathological factors, high STAT5a expression remained significantly associated with favorable survival in breast cancer (lnHR = -0.6091 [-1.0810, -0.1372], P-value = 0.0114). These results suggest that higher STAT5a expression is associated with favorable overall survival in breast cancer, and therefore might have protective effects, and that STAT5a expression could be a potential prognostic biomarker, especially in breast cancer. However, the prognostic role of STAT5a is dependent on cancer type.