Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is localized in the central nervous system and male genital organs of various mammals and is secreted as β-trace into the closed compartment of these tissues separated from the systemic circulation. In this study, we found that the mRNA for the human enzyme was expressed most intensely in the heart among various tissues examined. In human autopsy specimens, the enzyme was localized immunocytochemically in myocardial cells, atrial endocardial cells, and a synthetic phenotype of smooth muscle cells in the arteriosclerotic intima, and accumulated in the atherosclerotic plaque of coronary arteries with severe stenosis. In patients with stable angina (75–99% stenosis), the plasma level of L-PGDS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the great cardiac vein (0.694 ± 0.054 μg/ml, n = 7) than in the coronary artery (0.545 ± 0.034 μg/ml), as determined by a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. However, the veno-arterial difference in the plasma L-PGDS concentration was not observed in normal subjects without stenosis. After a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was performed to compress the stenotic atherosclerotic plaques, the L-PGDS concentration in the cardiac vein decreased significantly (P < 0.05) to 0.610 ± 0.051 μg/ml at 20 min and reached the arterial level within 1 h. These findings suggest that L-PGDS is present in both endocardium and myocardium of normal subjects and the stenotic site of patients with stable angina and is secreted into the coronary circulation.