NNMT (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, E.C. 188.8.131.52) catalyses the N-methylation of nicotinamide to 1-methylnicotinamide. NNMT expression is significantly elevated in a number of cancers, and we have previously demonstrated that NNMT expression is significantly increased in the brains of patients who have died of Parkinson's disease. To investigate the cellular effects of NNMT overexpression, we overexpressed NNMT in the SH-SY5Y cell line, a tumour-derived human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cell line with no endogenous expression of NNMT. NNMT expression significantly decreased SH-SY5Y cell death, which correlated with increased intracellular ATP content, ATP/ADP ratio and Complex I activity, and a reduction in the degradation of the NDUFS3 [NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur protein 3] subunit of Complex I. These effects were replicated by incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with 1-methylnicotinamide, suggesting that 1-methylnicotinamide mediates the cellular effects of NNMT. Both NNMT expression and 1-methylnicotinamide protected SH-SY5Y cells from the toxicity of the Complex I inhibitors MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion) and rotenone by reversing their effects upon ATP synthesis, the ATP/ADP ratio, Complex I activity and the NDUFS3 subunit. The results of the present study raise the possibility that the increase in NNMT expression that we observed in vivo may be a stress response of the cell to the underlying pathogenic process. Furthermore, the results of the present study also raise the possibility of using inhibitors of NNMT for the treatment of cancer.