Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) signaling participates in the synaptic plasticity, maintenance or regulation of adult brain. Although ErbB4, a key NRG1 receptor, is expressed in multiple regions in the adult animal brain, little is known about its localization in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. We previously reported that ErbB4 immunoreactivity showed regional difference in the hippocampus of age-matched control. In the present paper, immunohistochemical characterization of the distribution of ErbB4 receptor in the hippocampus relative to pathology staging were performed in age-matched control (Braak stage 0, n=6) and AD (Braak stage I/V, n=10). Here, we found that ErbB4 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in apoptotic hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the brains of AD patients, compared to those of age-matched control subjects. In AD brains, ErbB4 immunoreactivity was demonstrated to colocalize with the apoptotic signal Bax in apoptotic hippocampal pyramidal neurons. These results suggest that up-regulation of ErbB4 immunoreactivity in apoptotic neuron may involve in the progression of pathology of AD.