Research interest in the study of cytochromes P450 has recently been shifting to the characterization of "constitutively" expressed isozymes from that of the inducible forms. Several "constitutive" cytochrome P450 isozymes have been purified from rat liver including five immunochemically related proteins designated cytochromes P450f, P450g, P450h, P450i, and P450k. These hemoproteins have been identified as distinct isozymes on the basis of spectral, electrophoretic, and catalytic properties and NH2-terminal sequence analysis. Purification and immunoquantitation studies have indicated that these isozymes are expressed in a developmental as well as sex-related manner, and are relatively refractory to induction by xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450h and P450g are male-specific proteins, cytochrome P450i is a female-specific isozyme, while cytochromes P450f and P450k are present in both male and female adult rats. In addition, the expression of cytochrome P450g was shown to segregate into two phenotypes in outbred rats. Genetic studies utilizing inbred strains have indicated that the gene responsible for inheritance of high levels of cytochrome P450g is autosomal. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the role of gonadal hormones and growth hormone in the hepatic regulation of cytochromes P450g, P450h, and P450i in particular, the physiological significance of the "constitutive" isozymes in the liver remains largely unresolved.