Bovine herpes virus 5 (BHV-5) is an infectious agent belonging to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae and genus Varicellovirus. It is a neurotropic virus that causes neurological diseases mainly in young animals worldwide, especially in the South American countries, resulting in significant economic losses. Bovine herpesvirus 5 infection in young cattle is associated with neurological disease, which is usually fatal and is a good model for studying the pathogenesis of virus-induced meningoencephalitis. The BHV5 replicates in the nasal mucosa, and invades the central nervous system (CNS), mainly through the olfactory system. The innate immune response triggered by the host against virus replication via the olfactory route is not fully understood. Studies have found variations in the levels of Toll-Like receptor (TLR) expression in different regions of the bovine central nervous system during acute infection and reactivation of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infected bovines. A new perspective to understand the relationship of the pathogen and the host relating the microRNAs (miRNAs) that interact with the innate immune response during neurotropic viral infections.