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Exposure to parental smoking and cardiac structure and function in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

  • Pihlman, Jukka1, 2
  • Nuotio, Joel1, 2
  • Rovio, Suvi1, 2
  • Pahkala, Katja1, 2
  • Ruohonen, Saku1, 2
  • Jokinen, Eero3
  • Laitinen, Tomi P4
  • Burgner, David P5, 6
  • Hutri-Kähönen, Nina7
  • Tossavainen, Päivi8
  • Taittonen, Leena8, 9
  • Kähönen, Mika10
  • Viikari, Jorma S A11
  • Raitakari, Olli T1, 2, 12
  • Magnussen, Costan G1, 2, 13
  • Juonala, Markus11
  • 1 Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 2 Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 3 Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 4 Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 5 Murdoch Children's Research Institute, The Royal Children's Hospital, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 6 Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 7 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 8 Department of Pediatrics, PEDEGO Research Unit and Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 9 Vaasa Central Hospital, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 10 Department of Clinical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 11 Department of Medicine, University of Turku and Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 12 Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland. , (Finland)
  • 13 Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Australia. , (Australia)
Published Article
Scandinavian journal of public health
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2024
DOI: 10.1177/14034948221119611
PMID: 36071613


The relationship between childhood tobacco smoke exposure and cardiac structure and function in midlife is unclear. We investigated the association between parental smoking with cardiac structure and function in adulthood. 1250 participants (56.5% female) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had data on parental smoking and/or serum cotinine, a biomarker of exposure to tobacco smoke, at baseline 1980 (age 3-18 years) and echocardiography performed in 2011. Parental smoking hygiene (i.e., smoking in the vicinity of children) was categorized by parental smoking and serum cotinine levels in offspring. Dimensions of the left ventricle, diastolic and systolic function, and cardiac remodeling were used as outcomes. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, and covariates (blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, body mass index, socioeconomic status, smoking (only in adulthood)) in childhood and adulthood. Parental smoking was not associated with systolic or diastolic function in adulthood. Participants exposed to parental smoking (odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95%CI 1.23-2.92), hygienic parental smoking (OR 1.74, 95%CI 1.12-2.71), and non-hygienic parental smoking (OR 1.88, 95%CI 1.02-3.45) had higher odds of concentric remodeling (relative wall thickness >85th sex-specific percentile without left ventricular hypertrophy). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for child and adult covariates in the non-hygienic parental smoking group. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of concentric remodeling and thicker left ventricular and interventricular septal walls in midlife, which was not improved by parents who smoked hygienically. Parental smoking was not related to systolic or diastolic function in this relatively young population.

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