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Exposure to the Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Toxin Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) Prolongs and Increases Severity of Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis

Authors
  • robin, su c.
  • blomquist, thomas m.
  • kleinhenz, andrew l.
  • khalaf, fatimah k.
  • dube, prabhatchandra
  • lad, apurva
  • breidenbach, joshua d.
  • mohammed, chrysan j.
  • zhang, shungang
  • baum, caitlin e.
  • malhotra, deepak
  • kennedy, david j.
  • haller, steven t.
Publication Date
Jun 25, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) represents a collection of gastrointestinal disorders resulting from genetic and environmental factors. Microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) is a toxin produced by cyanobacteria during algal blooms and demonstrates bioaccumulation in the intestinal tract following ingestion. Little is known about the impact of MC-LR ingestion in individuals with IBD. In this study, we sought to investigate MC-LR&rsquo / s effects in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. Mice were separated into four groups: (a) water only (control), (b) DSS followed by water (DSS), (c) water followed by MC-LR (MC-LR), and (d) DSS followed by MC-LR (DSS + MC-LR). DSS resulted in weight loss, splenomegaly, and severe colitis marked by transmural acute inflammation, ulceration, shortened colon length, and bloody stools. DSS + MC-LR mice experienced prolonged weight loss and bloody stools, increased ulceration of colonic mucosa, and shorter colon length as compared with DSS mice. DSS + MC-LR also resulted in greater increases in pro-inflammatory transcripts within colonic tissue (TNF-&alpha / , IL-1&beta / , CD40, MCP-1) and the pro-fibrotic marker, PAI-1, as compared to DSS-only ingestion. These findings demonstrate that MC-LR exposure not only prolongs, but also worsens the severity of pre-existing colitis, strengthening evidence of MC-LR as an under-recognized environmental toxin in vulnerable populations, such as those with IBD.

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