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Exponentially more concise quantum recognition of non-RMM regular languages

  • Qiu, Daowen
  • Li, Lvzhou
  • Mateus, Paulo
  • Sernadas, Amilcar
Publication Date
May 18, 2013
Submission Date
Sep 08, 2009
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We show that there are quantum devices that accept all regular languages and that are exponentially more concise than deterministic finite automata (DFA). For this purpose, we introduce a new computing model of {\it one-way quantum finite automata} (1QFA), namely, {\it one-way quantum finite automata together with classical states} (1QFAC), which extends naturally both measure-only 1QFA and DFA and whose state complexity is upper-bounded by both. The original contributions of the paper are the following. First, we show that the set of languages accepted by 1QFAC with bounded error consists precisely of all regular languages. Second, we prove that 1QFAC are at most exponentially more concise than DFA. Third, we show that the previous bound is tight for families of regular languages that are not recognized by measure-once (RMO), measure-many (RMM) and multi-letter 1QFA. % More concretely we exhibit regular languages $L^0(m)$ for $m$ prime such that: (i) $L^0(m)$ cannot be recognized by measure-once, measure-many and multi-letter 1QFA; (ii) the minimal DFA that accepts $L^0(m)$ has $O(m)$ states; (iii) there is a 1QFAC with constant classical states and $O(\log(m))$ quantum basis that accepts $L^0(m)$. Fourth, we give a polynomial-time algorithm for determining whether any two 1QFAC are equivalent. Finally, we show that state minimization of 1QFAC is decidable within EXPSPACE. We conclude the paper by posing some open problems.

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