This study investigated the effectiveness of clinical simulations (CS) as an instructional strategy to prepare student teachers to conduct parent-teacher conferences. A pre-test/post-test study was set up in order to study the impact of online (n = 181) and face-to-face CS (n = 95) on student teachers' parent-teacher communication competence (PTCC). Assessment of PTCC development was based on a video-based instrument and a self-efficacy scale. Results suggested that both types of CS are effective instructional strategies to improve student teachers' PTCC. Both student teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and situation-specific skills regarding parent-teacher communication improved. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.