This study examines the associations of multiple forms of perceived discrimination and negative neighborhood conditions with mental health and retirement age. Respondents aged above 51 years from the Health and Retirement Study were selected in 2006 and surveyed through 2014. Ordinary least squares regression evaluated associations. Bias-corrected bootstrap resampling method tested whether mental health mediated the relationships between disadvantages and retirement age. Major lifetime and work discrimination, as well as neighborhood conditions, were directly associated with earlier retirement. Individuals who did not experience disadvantages retired at age 65, whereas respondents with the highest levels of disadvantage retired earlier (at age 62). Mental health partially mediated relationships between major lifetime discrimination, neighborhood conditions, and work discrimination with retirement age, whereas mental health fully mediated the relationship between everyday discrimination and retirement age. Efforts to promote civil rights, reduce discrimination, and enhance individual resilience may promote mental health and capacity to work longer.