A large body of literature indicates that people diagnosed with schizophrenia are highly likely to not comply with their prescribed treatment regime at some stage during the illness process. Factors that indicate the risk of noncompliance have been the subject of considerable research over a number of years. This paper presents an extensive review of the research literature on the subject of compliance in schizophrenia. A number of factors have constituted the focus of research into this area. These include: socio-demographic characteristics, including age, gender and socioeconomic status; illness factors including insight, psychiatric symptomatology, duration of illness, substance abuse, and adverse side-effects of medication; psychosocial factors such as health beliefs and social supports; and treatment factors including the nature of the therapeutic relationship between patients and health care professionals. While the results of relevant research do not provide a clear and conclusive picture of compliance, they provide important information to guide the pivotal role of the mental health nurse in facilitating patient compliance.