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Exploring cocoa properties: is theobromine a cognitive modulator?

Authors
  • Cova, Ilaria
  • Leta, V.
  • Mariani, C.
  • Pantoni, L.
  • Pomati, S.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Psychopharmacology
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication Date
Jan 31, 2019
Volume
236
Issue
2
Pages
561–572
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00213-019-5172-0
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Nutritional qualities of cocoa have been acknowledged by several authors; a particular focus has been placed on its high content of flavanols, known for their excellent antioxidant properties and subsequent protective effect on cardio- and cerebrovascular systems as well as for neuromodulatory and neuroprotective actions. Other active components of cocoa are methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine). Whereas the effects of caffeine are extensively researched, the same is not the case for theobromine; this review summarizes evidence on the effect of theobromine on cognitive functions. Considering animal studies, it can be asserted that acute exposition to theobromine has a reduced and delayed nootropic effect with respect to caffeine, whereas both animal and human studies suggested a potential neuroprotective action of long-term assumption of theobromine through a reduction of Aβ amyloid pathology, which is commonly observed in Alzheimer’s disease patients’ brains. Hence, the conceivable action of theobromine alone and associated with caffeine or other cocoa constituents on cognitive modulation is yet underexplored and future studies are needed to shed light on this promising molecule.

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