Bacillus is a diverse genus consisting of more than 200 species with extensive genetic diversity. Their beneficial effects in industrial shrimp farming have been well documented. However, little is known about the biodiversity of the Bacillus spp. in this aquaculture system. Taxonomic analysis by 16S rRNA sequencing does not always allow species-level identification of Bacillus spp. In this study, 26 Bacillus isolates from two industrial Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp ponds in Bac Lieu Province, Vietnam, were analyzed for their genetic diversity by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 22 sequence types were identified and segregated into four distinct clusters, corresponding to B. subtilis, B. velezensis, B. siamensis, and B. licheniformis. Bacillus subtilis and B. velezensis accounted for more than 73% of the Bacillus isolates. Notably, the MLST scheme exhibited high discriminatory power and might be further simplified to be a convenient method to identify species of the genus Bacillus.