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Exploiting the CD200-CD200R immune checkpoint axis in multiple myeloma to enhance CAR T-cell therapy.

Authors
  • Tang, Yan1
  • Liu, Wei1
  • Kadu, Siddhant1
  • Johnson, Omar1
  • Hasanali, Zainul S2
  • Kelly, Andre1
  • Shestov, Alexander1
  • Pajarillo, Raymone1, 2
  • Greenblatt, Eli3
  • Holmes, Matthew3
  • Wang, Li-Ping4
  • Shih, Natalie4
  • O'Connor, Roddy S1, 4
  • Ruella, Marco2
  • Garfall, Alfred L2
  • Allman, David2
  • Vogl, Dan T2
  • Cohen, Adam2
  • June, Carl H1, 4
  • Sheppard, Neil C1, 4
  • 1 Center for Cellular Immunotherapies, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 2 Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
  • 3 IsoPlexis, Bradford, CT.
  • 4 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Blood
Publisher
American Society of Hematology
Publication Date
Jan 11, 2024
Volume
143
Issue
2
Pages
139–151
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1182/blood.2022018658
PMID: 37616575
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated with B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells usually relapse with BCMA+ disease, indicative of CAR T-cell suppression. CD200 is an immune checkpoint that is overexpressed on aberrant plasma cells (aPCs) in MM and is an independent negative prognostic factor for survival. However, CD200 is not present on MM cell lines, a potential limitation of current preclinical models. We engineered MM cell lines to express CD200 at levels equivalent to those found on aPCs in MM and show that these are sufficient to suppress clinical-stage CAR T-cells targeting BCMA or the Tn glycoform of mucin 1 (TnMUC1), costimulated by 4-1BB and CD2, respectively. To prevent CD200-mediated suppression of CAR T cells, we compared CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of the CD200 receptor (CD200RKO), to coexpression of versions of the CD200 receptor that were nonsignaling, that is, dominant negative (CD200RDN), or that leveraged the CD200 signal to provide CD28 costimulation (CD200R-CD28 switch). We found that the CD200R-CD28 switch potently enhanced the polyfunctionality of CAR T cells, and improved cytotoxicity, proliferative capacity, CAR T-cell metabolism, and performance in a chronic antigen exposure assay. CD200RDN provided modest benefits, but surprisingly, the CD200RKO was detrimental to CAR T-cell activity, adversely affecting CAR T-cell metabolism. These patterns held up in murine xenograft models of plasmacytoma, and disseminated bone marrow predominant disease. Our findings underscore the importance of CD200-mediated immune suppression in CAR T-cell therapy of MM, and highlight a promising approach to enhance such therapies by leveraging CD200 expression on aPCs to provide costimulation via a CD200R-CD28 switch. © 2024 American Society of Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0), permitting only noncommercial, nonderivative use with attribution. All other rights reserved.

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