Research studies have shown that workplace incivility is associated with numerous negative work and non-work outcomes. The underlying mechanisms explaining why workplace incivility is associated with these outcomes, as well as contextual buffers of these relationships, have received less attention. This study extends workplace incivility research by examining the mediating role of negative rumination as a potential factor undergirding the relationship between experiences of incivility from colleagues at work and detrimental outcomes. We also investigated perceived organizational support and family supportive work environment as potential mitigators of the indirect relationship between incivility and negative outcomes. Data were collecfrom 154 university faculty members on two occasions. The results showed that negative rumination mediated the relationships between workplace incivility and both work (job satisfaction, burnout) and non-work (work-to-family conflict, life satisfaction) outcomes. Furthermore, results from the moderated mediation analyses revealed that perceived organizational support buffered the mediated effect of negative rumination and job satisfaction and a family-supportive work environment buffered the mediated effect of negative rumination on work-to-family conflict. Overall, the results demonstrate that negative rumination helps explain why workplace incivility negatively affects both work and non-work outcomes and underscores the important role of organizational context as buffers for these relationships. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.