Experiments on 77 rabbits studied the specific features of chondrogenesis during different grafting modifications for the perichondrium. The latter was found to have a high chondroplastic potential. The factors predisposing to cartilaginification and inhibiting this process were identified. Experimental positive results of perichondrial arthroplasty, in tuberculous arthritis as well, were achieved. By taking into account the experimental data, original methods for reparative operations used in patients with tuberculosis and nonspecific diseases of the joints were developed in the clinical setting. Their use in 12 patients yielded positive results, suggesting that the above methods are promising and their further study is advisable.