In experiments on sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, i. p.) anesthetized mongrel cats of either sex weighting from 2.0 to 4.0 kg, it was stated, that sodium or lithium hydroxybutyrate (HOB) (200 mg/kg, i. v.) effectively slowed down breathing with inspiratory holdings. Thus 3-5 minutes after HOB administration, eupneic pattern of respiration was changed firstly to inspiratory apneustic one (100% of cats), and then to periodic one (80% of cats). This pattern persisted for 60-90 minutes, and after that the respiratory pattern usually changed its direction to the opposite one. In these conditions alterations of arterial blood composition (pH, pO2, pCO2, SO2) and hemodynamic variables (heart rate, arterial pressure) can not be considered as the cause of apneustic pattern of respiration. It is suggested, that HOB can be used for simulating such terminal respiratory patterns as apneustic and periodic ones.