Latent bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infection was established in 6 calves and was demonstrated by reinduction of virus shedding after administration of corticosteroids. Latently infected calves failed to transmit BHV-1 during 4 weeks' contact with sentinel calves. Infected calves were killed and necropsied during latency or induced recrudescence. The BHV-1 DNA was demonstrated intranuclearly in trigeminal ganglion neurons by in situ hybridization. The BHV-1 antigen was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in trigeminal ganglion neurons during recrudescence. By electron microscopy, changes in the appearance of the Nissl bodies and a high frequency of nuclear bodies were observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons.