After over a half century of empirical and theoretical research regarding the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy in plants, unexplored factors influencing the relative fitnesses of females and hermaphrodites remain. Theoretical studies suggest that hermaphrodite self-fertilization (selfing) rate influences the maintenance of gynodioecy and we hypothesized that population sex ratio may influence hermaphrodite selfing rate. An experimental test for frequency-dependent self-fertilization was conducted using replicated populations constructed with different sex ratios of the gynodioecious plant Silene vulgaris. We found that hermaphrodite selfing increased with decreased hermaphrodite frequency, whereas evidence for increased inbreeding depression was equivocal. We argue that incorporation of context dependent inbreeding into future models of the evolution of gynodioecy is likely to yield novel insights into sex ratio evolution.